The FrostSpeechWeb Project
A SpeechWeb is a collection of hyperlinked speech applications, which are accessed remotely by speech browsers running on end-user devices. Links are activated through spoken commands. The first SpeechWeb was developed by Richard A. Frost of the University of Windsor, in Canada, and was demonstrated at the first International Workshop on Advance Issues of E-Commerce and Web-Based Information Systems (Frost 1999a), at the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Frost 1999b), and at the 1999 Conference of the Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics PACLING 99 (Frost and Chitte 1999).
A novel architecture for SpeechWebs was developed by the MySpeechWeb research group at the University of Windsor. The new architecture is called the LRRP architecture, standing for Local thin-client application-specific speech Recognition and Remote natural-language query Processing (Frost et al 2004). Users navigate an LRRP SpeechWeb using voice-activated hyperlink commands, and query the knowledge sources through spoken natural-language using a speech browser executing on a local device. When an LRRP SpeechWeb browser is directed to a remote hyperlinked knowledge source it begins by downloading a recognition grammar which is used to tailor the browser to the knowledge contained in the remote application. Queries that are subsequently recognized on the local device are then sent to the remote application for processing. Answers that are returned to the local browser are output as synthesized voice. If a navigation command is spoken, the application returns the address of another application to which the browser is redirected in a manner similar to the following of a link in the conventional web. Grammars can be simple or complex, and applications can be constructed in any programming language.
The notion of a Public-Domain SpeechWeb (PDSW) was first suggested by Richard Frost in a paper published in the Communications of the ACM (Frost 2005). A PDSW is a SpeechWeb which is accessible to the public and which contains speech applications that are created and deployed by the public in a manner that is analogous to the creation and deployment of HTML pages on the conventional web. The MySpeechWeb research group at the University of Windsor, which is funded by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), is currently developing software to facilitate the construction and deployment of speech applications by the public.
The most-recent SpeechWeb browser constructed by the MySpeechWeb research group at the University of Windsor, is written in the speech markup language X+V, uses freely-available software, and can be deployed on computers that have the Opera browser in 5 minutes (Frost, Ma, and Shi 2008).
- R. A. Frost, A. Karaki, D. Dufour, J. Greig, R. Hafiz, Y.Shi, S. Daichendt, S. Chandon, J. Barolak, and R. Fortier (2008) MySpeechWeb: Software to Facilitate the Construction and Deployment of Speech Applications on the Web. Accepted for presentation at ASSETS 2008, 10th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility to be held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada 13 - 15 October.
- Richard A. Frost, Xiaoli Ma, Yue Shi (2007) A browser for a public-domain SpeechWeb. WWW 2007 : 1307-1308.
- Li Su, Richard A. Frost (2005) A Novel Use of VXML to Construct a Speech Browser for a Public-Domain SpeechWeb. Canadian Conference on AI 2005: 401-405.
- Richard A. Frost: Call for a public-domain SpeechWeb. Commun. ACM 48(11): 45-49 (2005).
- Richard A. Frost, Nabil Abdullah, Kunal Bhatia, Sanjay Chitte, Fadi Hanna, Maxim Roy, Yue Shi, Li Su (2004) LRRP SpeechWebs. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on Communication Networks and Services Research (CNSR 2004) Fredericton, N.B., Canada May 19-21, 2004, 91-98.
- Richard A. Frost (2002) SpeechWeb: A Web of Natural-Language Speech Applications. Proceedings of the Eighteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Fourteenth Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Intelligent Systems Demonstrations (ISD), July 28 - August 1, 2002, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, AAAI/IAAI 2002: 998-999.
- Richard A. Frost (1999a) Speechnet: A Network of Hyperlinked Speech-Accessible Objects. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Advance Issues of E-Commerce and Web-Based Information Systems, 8-9 April, 1999, Santa Clara, California. IEEE Computer Society: 116-121.
- Richard A. Frost(1999b) A Natural-Language Speech Interface Constructed Entirely as a Set of Executable Specifications. Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Eleventh Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, July 18-22, 1999, Orlando, Florida, USA. AAAI/IAAI 1999: 908-909.
- Frost, R. A.. and Chitte, S. (1999) A New Approach for Providing Natural-Language Speech Access to Large Knowledge Bases, Proc. of PACLING 99, The Conference of the Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics, August 25-28, 1999, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 82-90.